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Works Cited Help (Bibliography)

Citing Sources Using the MLA Bibliographic Style

For more online citation samples use these links, MLA Quick Guide or OWL (Purdue). For a sample Works Cited list use this link.

1. Books
(Single Author) Format:
Author's last name, first name. Book title. City of publication: Publishing company, publication date. Medium.

Wildsmith, Brian. Saint Francis. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. Print.

(More than one author) Format:
1st Author's last name, first name and 2nd Author's last name, first name. Book title. City of publication: Publishing company, publication date. Medium.

Pavlovic, Zoran and Gritzner, Charles F. Republic of Georgia. Philadelphia. Chelsea House, 2002. Print.

2. YouTube Videos

For a video citation on the Works Cited page, include the video poster's name, title of the video in quotations, media type, name of website in italics, publisher name, posting date, the medium and date retrieved in the following format:

SciShow. "Why Do Leaves Change Color and Fall?" Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 7 Oct. 2014. Web. 9 Oct. 2014.

For in-text citations, simply include the poster's name and video title at the end of the sentence in parentheses. For example, "Photosynthesis turns carbon dioxide, water and light energy into sugar," (SciShow, "Why Do Leaves Change Color and Fall?").

3. Website or Webpage

Author's last name, first name (if available). "Title of work within a project or database." Title of site. Sponsor, Copyright date or update. Medium. Date of access. URL . Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.

“Mother Teresa.” Thomas Aquinas College. Thomas Aquinas College, 2013.
Web. 23 Apr. 2013. .

4. Image or Digital File
A digital file is any document or image that exists in digital form, independent of a Web site. To cite a digital file, begin with information required for the source (such as a photograph, a report, a sound recording, or a radio program), following the guidelines for the specific source. Then for the medium, indicate the type of file: “JPEG file,” “PDF file,” “MP3 file,” etc.

Hine, Lewis W. Girl in Cherryville Mill. 1908. Prints & Photographs Div., Lib of Cong. JPEG file.

5. Encyclopedia (Print & Electronic)

Print Format: Author's last name, first name (if any). "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Date. Medium.

Haran, Marilyn. “Catherine of Siena, Saint.” World Book Encyclopedia.
2003. Print.

Electronic Format:
Author's last name, first name (if any). "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Sponsor, Update date (use “n.d.” for none). Format. Access date. Range, Joan A. “Catherine of Siena, Saint”. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia


Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.

6. Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author's last name, first name. "Article title." Periodical/Newspaper title, Date: Volume/Edition (if any). Pages.
Note: If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition.

Hall, Trish. "IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why."
New York Times, 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1.

Trillin, Calvin. "Culture Shopping." New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.

7. Article From an Online Database

Format: Author name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume or issue. Year. Pages. Database Name. Medium. Access date.

Dayan, Joan. "St. Paul's Parenthesis." Southwest Review, Vol. 89. 2007. p421-441. EBSCOHost. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

8. Apps

Rightsholder Last Name, First. Title of app. Computer Software. Title of website where app was downloaded. Version number. Publisher/Developer, Date available. Web. Date accessed. URL to download app.



Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.

For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.

Underlining or Italics?

When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.

Hanging Indentation

All MLA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation

The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization - capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work (e.g., vol. for volume, ed. for editor) except when these designations follow a period. Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher's name (Random instead of Random House).

Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle. Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title. Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works (e.g., "Memories of Childhood." American Short Stories). Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs.

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